This article provides a summary of the historical background and basic tenets of the Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis (QSH), which has been applied to explore the language and literacy acquisition of d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh) children and adolescents in the United States (and elsewhere, for example, South Korea and Saudi Arabia). The QSH is a developmental similarity model, influenced by the early investigations on language and literacy development of children with developmental/intellectual/cognitive or learning/language disabilities. It is argued that the acquisition of English (or any other phonemic language) by d/Deaf and hard of hearing children or other children in Special Education programs is developmentally or qualitatively similar to that of typical (non-disabled) language and literacy learners. This is also the case for second language learners of English, often labeled English language learners. The QSH can be used to provide indirect support for inclusive education programs and strong direct support for access to the general education curriculum.
Keywords: d/Deaf and hard of hearing; developmental similarity; English language; English literacy; Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis

Aldijana Avdic, Rifet Terzic, Vesna Hadziavdic, Suad Siranovic, Snjezana Hodzic, Amela Hercegovac, Amela Jusic

Aim of this paper was to determine the frequency of congenital anomalies in a sample of newborns of Tuzla Canton and as well as their distribution according to gender, mother’s age and marital distance category. Research was undertaken using the retrospective analysis on the Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics of University Clinical Center in Tuzla. By analyzing medical documentation of 17223 newborns, we determined the frequency of congenital anomalies of 5.24%. Highest frequency of congenital anomalies was found in the newborns whose mothers are older than 35. It was found that the frequency of congenital anomalies in the observed population is within the range of variation of this parameter with data from the literature.
Keywords: Congenital anomalies, newborns, Tuzla Canton

The aim of this study was to examine the orientation and mobility in children with visual impairment in relation to gender and chronological age. The study included a sample of 35 respondents with visual impairment, aged between 7 and 15. The research was conducted in Sarajevo at the “Centre for Blind and Visually Impaired Children and Youth – Nedžarići” (Bosnian: Centar za slijepu i slabovidnu djecu i omladinu Nedžarići). The results of the research showed that there were statistically significant differences in relation to chronological age obtained on the variables “orientation indoors and in buildings” and “orientation in the yard”, and that there is a relation between orientation and mobility and chronological age on the variables “orientation indoors and in buildings” and “orientation in the yard”. Gender has no significant effect on the orientation and mobility abilities of visually impaired students.
Keywords: orientation and mobility, visually impaired children

The topic of this article presents communication challenges and the role of the media in constructing an image of migrants and refugees as “the others” in our societies today. The article analyses the migrant situation in South-Eastern Europe, specifically in migration crisis in Bosnia and Herzegovina that has been going on since 2018. The aim is to present the basic aspects of this issue and offer answers to key questions – who are migrants and refugees, what’s their own identity, from which countries do they come, how do they cross the border, where do they go, what is the state’s attitude towards them, what forms and channels of communication the state and other stakeholders use toward them, who cares for them, what do they preserve from their national, cultural and/or language identities and how do they construct self-identity and confront with the “hosting identities”, who donates funds for migration management and how they are managed? Also, a special focus of the research will be on the human rights of migrants and refugees in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is the subject of various discussions – both within the country itself and among various humanitarian, governmental and non-governmental international organizations in the EU and beyond.
Keywords: Media, communication, Balkan route, migrants, refugees

Jasna Veljkovic, Dragomir Davidovic, Ivana Leposavic, Maja Davidovic

The aim of this a quasi-experimental study is to test the changes in the Quality of Life of chronic mental disorders (schizophrenia) treated with psychodrama. Total sample consisted of 60 subjects, aged 21-38. From these, 30 subjects were in the experimental group, while 30 subjects were in the control group. All subjects were previously psychologically tested, as well as basic demographic data has been taken. The instrument we used was Life Quality Scale in Schizophrenia (21 items form). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained data indicates a statistically significant improvement of social and communicative abilities of participants of experimental groups, better impulse control and activation in the work area. The disadvantage of this research is: the small sample. Future examination is needed, as well as a more advanced data processing methodology.
Keywords: gender, group psychotherapy, life quality, psychodrama, psychotic patients, schizophrenia

The purpose of this narrative review was to summarize empirical studies regarding the effects of metacognition on English reading-related outcomes for students who are d/Deaf and hard of hearing (d/Dhh). This review covered the timeframe from the publication of the previous and only narrative review conducted by Strassman (1997) to 2020. Several of Strassman’s assertions were confirmed, including the oft-repeated one: d/Dhh students possess inadequate comprehension-monitoring skills. In fact, the students are not aware of effective metacognitive strategies and, in general, do not know “what they do not know.” Although intervention is strongly recommended, a few later studies asserted that such intervention not only should be based on the recommendations of the National Reading Panel, but also should be differentiated to meet the individual needs of d/Dhh students. It was argued that d/Dhh reading comprehension challenges are due to metacognitive or executive function issues; however, this assumption needs to be contextualized within a framework of reading which entails decoding and comprehension processes.
Keywords: d/Deaf and hard of hearing; metacognition; English reading comprehension

Leila Begic, Mirela Duranovic, Mirza Sitarevic, Fata Becirbasic

The main objective of the study was to determine the developmental abilities of preschool children before and after six months of speech therapy treatment, and to examine the impact of the time of initiation of speech therapy treatment on the developmental abilities of children. The sample consisted of 35 children (20 male children and 15 female children), and all respondents reported early intervention due to speech and language difficulties. The age of the respondents ranged from 25 to 60 months. After conducting interviews with parents, taking anamnestic data, professional speech therapy diagnostic- observational procedure and determining speech-language disorders, the children underwent speech therapy treatment. After six months, a final assessment was made and the results showed statistically significant progress in all variables describing developmental abilities in children. The predictor “Time of treatment initiation” also had a statistically significant impact on all tested variables of developmental abilities of preschool children. The results showed that speech therapy treatment enables significant progress in all developmental areas in children, i.e. that progress in one development area follows the development of other areas.
Keywords: social development, speech, thinking and perception, fine and gross motor skills, early intervention

Lidija Ristovska, Zora Jachova, Jasmina Kovacevic, Vesna Radovanovic, Husnija Hasanbegovic

Speech detection threshold (SDT) depends on audibility alone, whereas speech recognition threshold (SRT) requires the stimuli to be heard and identified. The aim of the study was to determine the difference between SDT and SRT, and to analyze the correlation between pure tone thresholds and speech thresholds. Difference between SDT and SRT was ≤ 12 dB in majority of cases (p = .018). SDT was strongly correlated with the best pure tone threshold. Pearson correlation coefficient was the highest in “Inverted U” shape (r = .99). There was strong correlation between SRT and PTA (500-2000), PTA (500-4000), and PTA (500-1000), especially in Rising configuration (r = .997, r = .992 r = .989, respectively), as well as, between SRT and frequency of 1000 Hz (r = .989). SRT is in the highest correlation with PTA (500, 1000, 2000 Hz) and with the hearing threshold at frequency of 1000 Hz.
Keywords: correlation, hearing threshold, speech threshold

The main aim of the study was to empirically investigate and understand the effects that autonomy has on job satisfaction and job performance in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The empirical data was obtained from a questionnaire of 242 people living and working in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Once the data was collected, data analysis was conducted to assure validity and reliability through items’ loadings and Cronbach’s Alpha values.Furthermore, the scales were tested for convergent validity through partial least-square path modelling using SmartPLS 3 software. The results indicated that the effects of autonomy on job performance and job satisfaction were significant and had positive relationship.
Keywords: Autonomy, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Job Satisfaction, Job Performance

The focus of this research is education during the coronavirus pandemic in Southeastern European countries (Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and North Macedonia). It encompasses elementary education, high schools and higher education. The aim of the research is multiple. With it, we want to present methods of distance learning during the pandemics in the above mentioned countries, challenges and advantages that have emerged, as well as potential solutions for removing faults. This is primarily qualitative research relying on several methods. We conducted interviews to understand the experiences of different stakeholders participating in the education process. This research also relies on quantitative data, i.e. researches doing by The University of Prishtina, Pedagogical Institute of Kosovo, as well as results of opinion polls and research conducted by Student Parliament and Senate of the University of Sarajevo. Their research was conducted throughout the academic year 2020/2021. Also, we compiled different texts from media, as well as statements from different stakeholders. Our method is primarily inductive – because in some cases general ideas and conclusions about distance learning in Kosovo and Bosnia and Herzegovina are based on different individual examples. Information in this research in relation to the section on North Macedonia is mainly based on three sources: Data from the website of Ministry for Education and Science of the Republic of North Macedonia; Morphosis Foundation Survey from September 2020 entitled Status and Challenges for Managing Online Teaching in Primary School; and Findings from the research with directors, teachers, and parents: Experience and Attitudes about Distance Learning, a document prepared by Reactor. Our key conclusion is that Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina and North Macedonia were not an exception regarding to the problems that arose during the pandemic in terms of education, such as online teaching, adapting students to new learning conditions, training of teachers for teaching in extraordinary and new circumstances, assessment criteria, etc. However, the situation has also brought opportunities to re-think existing education models and to find new solutions at schools and universities.
Keywords: Coronavirus pandemic, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of North Macedonia, distance learning, scientific education, challenges, advantages

The HRM development takes on particular importance as it is considered to be an organizational function that promotes and creates space for creativity, innovation, speed, efficiency and effectiveness, thus transforming the workforce into a precious asset to the organization. In this research we investigate to what extent parts of modern HRM policies are mostly implemented in Micro and Small enterprises in Kosovo and how do they impact efficiency of the businesses and their workers, we have developed and implemented some questionnaires related to the important variables of this issue. Businesses should be able to provide competitive advantages in the market, successfully cope with the rapid advancement of technology, the effects of globalization, and the need to have an effective and efficient workforce to better fulfil their economic objectives. The HRM has its role in lifelong learning and development of employees, employee relations with co-workers and management, human relations, as well as motivation of employees. The development of HR practices has an impact not only on the economic development of an organization but also on the creation of positive effects on a country’s economic and social development. This paper has basically descriptive and analytical research. The overall conclusion of the paper is that the efficient management of human resources has an impact on the development of the private business sector, and is positively related with increases in the efficiency of the employees and the firm, therefore the need for human resources management in private businesses is necessary and essential.
Keywords: Human Resources, Microbusiness, Small business, Efficiency, Performance

Goal of this paper was to determine differences between deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students in motivation for academic achievement and compared to hearing students. Sample was comprised of 94 students averaging 16.5 ± 1.34 years of age. Sample was divided into three groups (deaf, hard of hearing and hearing students). For examination, we used the following: Great Inventory of Achievement Motivation, measuring instrument for assessing students’ motivation for academic achievement, that is comprised of five subtests i.e. 13 areas of measurement (Suzic, 2006). For difference testing t-test was used along with analysis of variance (ANOVA). T-test determined statistically significant difference in areas of “self-efficacy “, “engagement”, “control” and “non-conformism”. Deaf and hard of hearing students displayed less motivation on these parameters than their hearing counterparts. In the area of “valuing academic achievements” DHH students together displayed, better motivation than their hearing counterparts and difference was statistically significant. With Analysis of Variance i.e. with additional Tukey test, we have determined that statistically significant difference is present only when comparing deaf and hearing students, but not when comparing hard of hearing and hearing students.
Keywords: deaf and hard of hearing, students, motivation, academic achievement

Pirjade Ambarin M., Rushika G. Telhande, Dr. Yadav Trupti

The objectives of our study are: 1. To find out the awareness of early warning signs of stroke in rural population. 2. To find out the awareness of early warning signs of stroke in urban population. 3. To find out the difference between the level of awareness in rural and urban population. It was a survey – based study in which the population fulfilling the criteria were given the stroke questionnaire with Prior consent. Based on the responses, the percentage of awareness among the population was calculated. The difference between the level of awareness in rural and urban population was calculated. The total Sample was 162 including rural (81) and urban (81). The sample size was derived using formula . Were, p=44.3%, q=100 – p, L= 12% (p= prevalence rate, q= 100 – p, L= allowable error). Based on stroke questionnaire it was seen that the rural population had more prevalence rate of stroke and were familiar with the term stroke or paralysis whereas urban population (12%) was unaware of the warning signs of the stroke. Awareness was quiet high in Rural Population (19%). The level of awareness was less in both the population but was less in urban population as compared to rural population.
Keywords: Awareness, Morbidity, Mortality, Rural, Stroke, Urban, Warning Signs

DOi: 10.21554/hrr
Volume 11 - Issue 2