VOLUME 13 | ISSUE 1 | APRIL, 2023

The transition to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic included almost all teachers and students. Digital (inadequate) skills and (in)competencies of both teachers and students have come to the fore. Accelerated adaptation, getting used to new forms of work, learning and teaching in these two years has introduced significant changes in the educational process and has shown the need to revise the educational system and the need for modernization and transformation. The study presents the results of a survey of a sample of 1,600 upper primary teachers in primary schools in the Republic of Croatia, which aimed to examine their attitudes and impressions regarding the implementation of online teaching during the pandemic COVID-19. The results of the research showed the following: The vast majority of respondents (94.1%) answered that the classic form of teaching is better than online teaching. Most of the respondents spent 2 to 4 hours in the preparation and evaluation of student materials.
Keywords: teacher, teaching, digital technologies, digital competencies, online teaching

A. Brdarevic-Celjo, H. Delic, V. Dubravac

This study aimed to explore the use of nominal and verbal Anglicisms by Bosnian high school students, the students’ familiarity with these Anglicisms and their attitudes towards them and it also aimed to see whether these factors vary with respect to the frequency of students’ use of English in speaking, listening, reading and writing. The findings point to a very frequent use of Anglicisms among Bosnian participants, particularly verbal Anglicisms which tended to be significantly more frequently employed than nominal Anglicisms, and slightly greater familiarity with the English form rather than with the Bosnian equivalent form. Moreover, the frequency of the use of Anglicisms was related to the frequency of reading and writing in English, while the familiarity with the Bosnian equivalent was significantly related to speaking and reading and familiarity with the English equivalent form to all four aspects of English language use. The participants also expressed rather positive attitudes towards Anglicisms, perceiving them as a useful addition and not a serious threat to their native language.
Keywords: borrowing, loan words, Anglicisms, attitudes, high school.

Reading activities are generally compromised owing to the time constraints in the classroom. As an outcome, students’ inability to understand a passage has an adverse effect on their enthusiasm and confidence despite knowing that reading acquisition plays a crucial role in language learning. In this regard, mobile apps seem to be the powerful support for acquiring reading skills and interpreting comprehension which are the two challenging aspects of language learners to be knowledgeable enough. They also enrich readers with vast opportunities and provide a stress-free environment that aids them to improve their reading skills. The paper reported here explores the effectiveness and the role of mobile applications in acquiring reading skills. Reviewed articles and dissertations used in this paper focus on the development, analysis, examination of the mobile apps for enhancing reading skills. The paper also explores the research design, methodology and theory that support the usage of chosen mobile apps for the research. This review article concludes that reading skills can be enhanced better through mobile apps than that of the conventional academic setting.
Keywords: reading activities, reading acquisition, mobile apps, comprehension, stress-free environment

The main goal of this research was to determine whether and to what extent educational programs and curriculums for preschool education develop competences in students that are needed for establishing partnership with parents. The basic research technique is the analysis of syllabus documentation. The analysis was created for the preschool education educational programs in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (University in Tuzla, University in Zenica, University in Bihac, University in Sarajevo), and it showed that there are differences between institutions in the aspect of presence of study courses that prepare future educators for the work with parents. The results of the research have shown that there are differences in relation to the examined units of analysis and that the degree of conformity of syllabus contents for the course subject Family Pedagogy and Partnerships with parents varies in relation to the examined areas.
Keywords: educator, partnership, professional competence of educators.

S. Tulumovic, A. Bacic-Mujagic

The aim of the research was to determine the success of reading Braille graphemes and understanding the read text in congenitally blind students. The research included 61 students: 30 congenitally blind students, 31 students who went blind later in life, aged 7-18, both genders who are in education and rehabilitation in the Centre for Blind and Visually Impaired Children and Youth Nedzarici in Sarajevo and in elementary schools in Tuzla Canton and Brcko District. The obtained results showed that there is no statistically significant difference in the ability to read Braille graphemes, and a statistically significant difference was shown in the understanding of the read text in Braille between congenitally blind students and students who went blind later in life.
Keywords: reading, blind students, reading comprehension

In this study, using the methods of spatial autocorrelation in geographic information systems (GIS), an analysis of the spatial distribution of mortality rates in Bosnia and Herzegovina was performed in order to identify high-risk areas with increased mortality and depopulation. Spatial analysis is based on the calculation of global (Global Moran’s I and Getis-Ord General G) and local (Anselin Local Moran’s I and Getis-Ord Gi*) statistical indices of spatial autocorrelation. The values of global statistical indices confirmed a clustering of high mortality values, while local statistical indices confirmed high mortality rates in the municipalities of northwestern and eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Conducted research provides an insight into spatial patterns of demographic processes, while results obtained by this research are significant for demographic development and future spatial demographic research in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Keywords: GIS, spatial analysis, spatial autocorrelation, mortality, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Internet Addiction is a rising problem among the Indian school students. The purpose of this research was to find out the extent of internet addiction among higher secondary level school students and the anxi- ety of higher secondary level school students having different levels of internet addiction. The research was conducted on 600 students of CBSE schools in Bhopal. The information was collected by Internet Addiction Scale and General Anxiety Scale. The findings revealed that 10% had normal level of internet addiction, 56% had mild level of internet addiction, 33% had moderate level of internet addiction and just 1% had se- vere level of internet addiction, the lower the level of internet addiction the lower will be the anxiety of the higher secondary level school students and girls are found to have significantly higher anxiety than boys.
Keywords: anxiety, gender, higher secondary level, internet addiction, school students

The aim of this research was to examine the development of motor functions in children with visual impairment compared to children without visual impairment. The research included a sample of 70 respondents; 35 with impaired vision and 35 with no visual impairment. The research was conducted in Sarajevo at the Center for Blind and Visually Impaired Children and Youth “Nedzarici”, and in Tuzla at the Elementary School “Centar”. The results of the research have shown that respondents with visual impairment have less developed motor functions compared to respondents without visual impairment. The variables on which the respondents with visual impairment achieved the worst results, which refer to the quality of drawing and the speed of drawing, were especially singled out.
Keywords: motor functions, visually impaired children, children without visual impairment

The skills and attitudes acquired in the classes allow the student to get to know and understand the world around him better, to learn more easily in the natural and social environment and to make decisions about personal prosperity. This research includes 300 students, emphasizes the issue of the quality of education in secondary schools, with a focus on the acquisition of knowledge through innovative methods, as well as the issue of the quality of students’ acquired knowledge, the impact on student achievements. Interactions between students and lecturers. Quality knowledge belongs to the level of recognition and reproduction. However, the test results so far show serious deficiencies and failures in teaching in the Republic of Kosovo, indicating the necessity of applying modern techniques and methods of the teaching process in order to improve the quality of teaching, which, among other things, requires personal creativity and engagement of teachers. In order for the aforementioned methods and techniques of curriculum implementation to be applicable, teachers need to be additionally educated and provided with appropriate contemporary literature in these areas. The paper presents the results of the statistical software package SPSS version 25, about students’ attitudes about developing the ability to use modern methods and techniques in teaching based on age, gender in relation to the program of attendance. Researchers suggest the use of innovative methods that have proven to be useful in the teaching and learning process.
Keywords: Education, knowledge, teaching, students, learning.

To analyse democratic and legal labour relations in the current conditions of economic and social development means, first and foremost, to highlight their essence and main features, as well as the development trends and future improvements of these relations.The year 2021, like 2020, has been characterized, among others, by the COVID-19 pandemic. This has produced various effects. As an effort to mitigate these effects, the Government of Kosovo has undertaken measures to support employment through the economic recovery package. Based on this context, the main and only purpose of the 1st Measure of economic recovery is the support of employment. Active employment measures have played a very important role in the integration of unemployed persons into the labour market. One of these measures with the largest number of beneficiaries is Vocational Training. Vocational training is a fundamental and very important process to get a job. In this sense, even the latest statistical data (2021) of the official authorities of Kosovo prove that the largest beneficiaries of active labour market measures are the persons who have undergone vocational training. The purpose of Vocational Training is to enable an increase or adoption of professional knowledge, namely to acquire additional knowledge, skills and abilities to perform efficient work, in order to increase the prospect of employment or retain their employment. Based on the international aspect, employment and the labour market are under the pressure of many factors, such as demographic, technological, economic and political ones; therefore, vocational training is considered as one of the most successful active labour market measures.
Keywords: employment, employment relationship, vocational training, mediated employment.

Diella Pula, Fatmir Mehmeti, Artan Reshani

This study aims to identify the classroom management skills of primary school teachers who teach in primary schools in the Municipality of Prizren. The study also aims to determine whether classroom management skills vary depending on the gender, work experience, and their level of education. For the chosen topic, quantitative approach/method was applied.The sample of the study consists of 307 teachers from different public and private schools, including schools in urban and rural areas of the Municipality of Prizren. To collect the data for the research problem, we used the survey technique with its instrument, the questionnaire for primary school teachers. The Mann Whitney U Test analysis was used to see among which groups there are differences between teachers’ opinions regarding classroom management skills and their teaching experiences. Whereas, to see among which groups there are differences, between teachers’ opinions regarding classroom management skills and their teaching experience as well as between the level of the classes where they teach, the Kruskal Wallis H Test was used. The conclusions from the analysis show that there are significant differences between teachers’ opinions regarding classroom management skills and the gender of teachers and teachers’ experience.
Keywords: Management, skills, classroom, teachers

Zora Jachova, Lidija Ristovska, Jasmina Kovacevic, Nerxhivane Krasniqi

Hearing impaired listeners show different phoneme confusions during speech recognition testing. The aim of the study was to analyze phoneme recognition in patients with sensorineural hearing loss during word recognition testing with monosyllabic words, as well as, to compare consonant confusions in different vowel context. Recognition of 18 initial and final consonants was analyzed in a total of 698 presentations of the words. There were 1154 (82.7%) correct recognitions and 100 consonant confusions (7.2%). The patients did not response at a total of 71 presentations of the words which means that consonants in 142 cases (10.2%) were not recognized, nor confused. There are no consonant confusion patterns during suprathreshold testing with real words. In cases of phoneme confusions, listeners replace the stimulus word with another word from the lexical neighborhood. In terms of the vowel context, the consonants are the most easily identified in the context of the vowel /a/.
Keywords: phoneme, recognition, sensorineural hearing loss, speech audiometry

In India, English language teachers encounter numerous challenges while developing speaking skill of the learners in rural and semi-urban regions. There are many activities like role-play, theatre and drama to improve the oral competence of the second language learners of English. Playback theatre is an improvisational theatre technique where the participants will enact and perform the stories on the spot. Playback theatre therapy training may prove as a crucial factor in overcoming affective filters while speaking and learners may gain better development and awareness of language expressions in English. This process will aid in the development of their communication skills. Anxiety, motivation, and self-confidence are identified as factors that affect the speaking performance of students. Anxiety is a feeling defined by nervousness, perplexity, and fear. When students are anxious, they are often reluctant to speak and fear making mistakes. Anxiety disorder would prevent the oral performances from being consistent. Majority of the learners at the undergraduate level quite often encounter anxiety when they speak in English. So, playback theatre therapy training as a workshop was organized to identify the relevance of such activities to improve the speaking skills of the learners. The participants of the study are from Undergraduate programme in Vellore district. The sampling method employed in the study is purposive sampling method. 38 participants were selected as the samples for this study. The playback theatre activities like warm up, introducing myself with an adjective, taking someone’s place, becoming the object, fluid sculpt, tableau and metaphor was employed as the intervention to improve the speaking skills and alleviate the speaking anxiety among the learners. The study concludes that Playback theatre activities have a considerable impact on learners’ anxiety level, expressiveness and attentiveness, composure, and speech naturalness.
Keywords: Playback theatre, Anxiety, Speaking skill, Expressiveness, Attentiveness

Introduction: The mere presence of a dog in a therapeutic setup is known to bring about more positive outcomes when incorporated in therapy, dogs can bring about multifarious benefits which are not entirely tapped upon. Aim: This research aimed to study the effect of animal-assisted therapy (AAT), with therapy dogs, on depressive symptoms, emotional regulation, memory and attention of individuals.
Method: A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design was used. Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) for memory and attention, Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were used for pre and post-testing 1 week before and post the intervention. Results: The findings reveal a positive impact of AAT on the given domains of memory, attention, emotion regulation and depressive symptoms, in the experimental group. No significant changes were obtained for the control group. Discussion: The results help validate the module of AAT to improve an individual’s cognitive functioning and alleviate depressive and emotional dysregulations. Further implications are discussed.
Keywords: animal-assisted therapy, attention, depression, emotion regulation, memory, therapy dog

Vehbi Miftari, Alma Shehu Lokaj, Vjosa Hajdari

Giving and receiving information about employee performance is something that happens every day within an organization. This process of assessment has a clear goal: to clarify the level of performance the employees have to achieve and the steps they have to undertake to achieve the performance standards. In a normal business environment and a positive organizational culture, they both share their views and perceptions without any barriers and try to do that positively, not threatening, irritating, or judging each on their views. Our article analyses the use of the sandwich feedback technique in public administration as one of the sectors where organizational culture and climate differ from those of the business environment and where the spread of messages is more complicated. Connected to this, we analysed if this technique is the most appropriate technique for communicators who want to transform the business environment and culture.
Keywords: Employee, performance, feedback technique, interpersonal relation, performance standards

Visual Phonics is a multisensory method for teaching phonological skills using visual, auditory, and kinesthetic modalities and has the potential to improve the literacy development of diverse students, especially struggling readers. Many interventions designed for specific populations (e.g., students who are deaf or have learning disabilities) can be generalized to the larger population of students. However, the potential of these interventions is often overlooked or regarded as not applicable to specific cohorts of students. Visual Phonics is one such example. Therefore, this paper describes visual phonics, reviews selected studies on its effectiveness, and provides instructional activities and strategies of Visual Phonics to show how to use this system effectively.
Keywords: Visual Phonics; struggling readers; instructional activities and strategies

Yugoslav jurisprudence has taken an attitude that in addition to examination of the land registry and ownership state of real estate, it is necessary to verify whether the seller is the actual owner and possessor of real estate. The Law on Land Registries of the FBiH prescribes a radically different way of regulating this legal issue, in the way that prescribes gross negligence as a condition of conscientiousness of the later acquirer. In the process of drafting and passing the new Law on the Property Rights, our legislator realized unenforceability of the legal rule on gross negligence in the Law on the Land Registries, and transformed it into a legal rule on doubt as significantly more responsible relation of the later acquirer, according to off-the-record facts related to a certain real estate. The paper analysed the aforementioned legal rules and the goal of the transformation of legal rules was declared through the essential interpretation of the new Law on the Property Rights of the FBiH. Attitudes and proposals de lege ferenda were taken for proper application of legal rules, which should ultimately result in harmonisation of judicial practice.
Keywords: Conscientiousness, Gross negligence, Doubt, Legal rules on trust protection, Disputes between book and non-book owners

The research possibilities of a qualitative approach have a long tradition in the social sciences and humanities, including different perspectives on theoretical foundations, research strategies, techniques, and data collection and analysis methods. The qualitative methodology first developed in cultural anthropology and ethnology, where the anthropological works of Malinowski, Strauss, Boas, and others marked the foundations of the field method of collecting data and conducting ethnographic studies. However, to date, there is no single definition of qualitative methodology, just as there are no studies that do not require the dimensions of different approaches. Starting from the observation that the question of the compatibility of qualitative and quantitative research methods is still a source of disagreement among researchers, arising from academic criticism of the quality and reliability of qualitative research, this study aims to highlight the role and importance of qualitative research in the scientific and educational process. Through the theoretical analysis of the relevant sources of methodological studies, the authors present some fundamental principles of the qualitative approach and its leading research strategies, illustrating the theoretical aspects with the most important constructs in this methodological area. The findings of this article show that despite the diversity of scientific literature and research on defining the value of qualitative research, a systematic and in-depth study of qualitative methodological issues is still needed to contribute to the improvement of the literature and increase the value of this approach in scientific and educational research practice. Accordingly, although the authors sustain a mixed research approach, they also emphasize the importance of qualitative methods, which should not be viewed separately from the research process.
Keywords: methodology, qualitative approach, research, science, education

Sefika Umihanic, Sekib Umihanic, Rahima Jahic, Jasmina Smajic, Dzenan Halilovic, Jasmina Bosnjic, Dilista Piljic, Medina Bandovic-Kuduzovic, Lejla Nezic, Ena Smajic

The objective of this paper was to present basic clinical characteristics and outcomes of treating Covid 19 patients during the second wave of the pandemic. In the retrospective study for the period from September 2020 to February 2021 it was analyzed disease history data and radiological lung changes, time from the initial start of the disease until hospitalization, parameters of blood gas analysis, comorbidities, and the outcome. The research covered 409 patients, out of which 263 (64.3%) were males. Average age was 67.07± 12.44 years (min. 20; max. 93). A high comorbidities prevalence (82.9%) was noticed out of which arterial hypertension (69.2%), diabetes mellitus (37.7%) and obesity (24.7%). On the radiological lung scan the most noticed changes were consolidation (46.2%), “ground glass” (41.3%) and interstitial changes (13%). Bilateral lung infiltration was noticed in 91.9% of the patients. Average oxygen saturation was 84.29%±10.28% (min. 35; max. 98; med. 87%). In patients with unilateral lung infiltration, average oxygen saturation was 85.09%±8.60% (med. 89%, min.61% max 98%), while in patients with bilateral lung infiltration average was 84.22%±10.42% (med. 87%, min. 35%, max. 98%). From the total all patients’ death was noticed in 35.7% cases. Morbidity of patients with unilateral lung infiltration was 27.3% and in patients with unilateral infiltration 36.4%. Hospital admission in the first week of the disease indicates the severity of the clinical condition and can be a predictor of poor outcome. Bilateral pulmonary infiltration, obesity and diabetes mellitus are risk factors for high mortality.
Keywords: comorbidity, Covid 19, lung infiltration, outcome.

Aim. The researcher’s goal is to investigate how organizational characteristics affect the process of making ethical decisions. Methods. The study’s focus was on certified accountants working in Kosovo during the Covid19 era. The task is qualitative in nature; SPPS is used to process the data after Excel has done so. This study used descriptive and regression analysis. Results. The study demonstrated that organizational criteria like size, industry, the presence of an ethics code, and ethical climate have an impact on how decisions are made. To identify organizational elements and, as a result, improve the ethical decision-making process, the paper’s findings may have policy implications. Conclusions. This study provided insight into how to increase the influence of organizational elements in ethical decision-making, particularly in the accounting field. A sound foundation for an ethical decision-making process that is sustainable is provided by the recommendations at the end of the paper.
Keywords: Certified accountants, Ethical decision-making process, Organizational factors, Kosovo.

DOi: 10.21554/hrr