VOLUME 14 | ISSUE 1 | APRIL, 2024

(The next ISSUE of HRR comes in September 2024)

Schools are social structures and educational organizations are open and social systems. Determining the perception of cultural values, psychological resilience levels and alienation perceptions of administrators and teachers working in schools can provide information to practitioners and those concerned and offer clues for taking necessary measures. Determining the relationship and interaction level between these three qualities can contribute to the generation of realistic solutions. In this context, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between school administrators’ and teachers’ perceptions of individual cultural values and psychological resilience and their perceptions of alienation. Relational survey model, one of the quantitative research methods, was used in the study. The study was conducted with school principals, assistant principals and teachers working in Istanbul in the 2021–2022 academic year. Data were collected from 411 teachers randomly selected by cluster- stratified sampling. “Individual Cultural Values Scale” translated into Turkish by Saylık (2019), “Psychological Resilience Scale” developed by Arslan (2015) and the “Alienation Scale” translated into Turkish by Güğerçin and Aksay (2017) were used as data collection tools. According to the results of the analysis, it was determined that although the perceptions of psychological resilience of administrators and teachers were at a very high level, they also experienced a high level of alienation. Perceptions of individual cultural values are at a medium level in the power distance sub-dimension, at a medium level in the masculinity, femininity and collectivism sub-dimensions, and at a high level in other sub-dimensions. While there is a low level relationship between all sub-dimensions of individual cultural values perceptions of administrators and teachers and psychological resilience perceptions in general and their sub-dimensions, there is no significant relationship between alienation perceptions and cultural values except for the sub-dimension of long term reach.
Keywords: Culture, Individual Cultural Values, Psychological Resilience, Alienation

Being a parent of a child who exhibits atypical developmental patterns and encounters numerous difficulties necessitates parents to assume the roles of advocates and coordinators for their child’s services, thereby limiting the scope for personal fulfillment. This research endeavors to ascertain whether disparities exist in the quality of life between parents of typically developing children and parents of children with autism. Additionally, it aims to explore parental satisfaction with parenthood and the experience of parental stress. The study encompassed a cohort of 90 families, comprising 45 families with typically developing children and 45 families with children diagnosed with autism. To facilitate data collection, a comprehensive questionnaire was devised, capturing fundamental information. Furthermore, two scales, namely the Parental Satisfaction Scale and the Parental Stress Scale, were employed to assess parental perspectives. The results, obtained through nonparametric group comparison techniques, substantiate a significantly heightened level of parental stress among parents of children with autism. Moreover, noteworthy discrepancies were observed across essential domains of parental satisfaction. An unprecedented finding arising from this investigation, not documented in extant literature, pertains to the prevalent inclination of parents whose firstborn and solitary child has autism to conceive another child, motivated by apprehensions of autism recurrence and concerns surrounding their capacity to devote sufficient attention to a child with autism.
Keywords: parents, family, autism, development, stress

A rising quantity of research designates that adolescents’ and students’ psychological problems pose a risk to them and society. Research indicates that students frequently utilize Information and Communications Technology (ICT) services to get informed about mental health, and to resolve their psychological problems. A critical and reflective analysis of the scientific literature, and a critical examination and reflective synthesis, theories, and practice on the use of ICTs and digital media for the treatment of psychological problems have been employed in this study. The study identifies gaps in research theory and practice regarding the use of ICTs and digital services for the prevention and treatment of mental health issues among adolescents and the student population. The article proposes ten preliminary criteria for ICT use in the treatment of psychological problems as a direction for further research.
Keywords: criteria, education, ICTs, psychological problems, e-psychology

Sivakumar Ramachandran, Naveen Kumar and Steve Milanese

Stepping is the strategy used in standing to prevent fall. Reactive stepping is made when perturbed to fall. Reactive stepping is less assessed in clinical setting, instead, proactive stepping is assessed to measure the risk of fall. Reactive stepping is commonly tested in research settings. This study was done to find relationship between proactive stepping and reactive stepping in healthy adults. We found that proactive stepping ability did not reflect reactive stepping ability. The study suggests that outcomes of proactive stepping measures must be used with caution to understand individual’s ability to do reactive stepping and prevent falling.
Keywords: fall, postural reaction, stepping, CSRT

Vocabulary is often overlooked by educators, yet it is one of the most important aspects of language learning. It is essential for all four language abilities, as it is linked to writing, reading, speaking, and listening. Without comprehensive vocabulary knowledge, students may not be successful in acquiring English as a language. One potential way for English language students to improve their vocabulary is to use multimedia sources like animated movies. Animated movies can provide significant benefits to students by using visual aids that enhance comprehension and facilitate improved learning outcomes. This paper aims to understand the effectiveness of vocabulary learning and teaching through animated movies. This article investigates the efficacy and role of animated films in the acquisition of vocabulary. The articles reviewed for this paper focus on the development, analysis, and examination of animated movies for enhancing vocabulary acquisition. In addition, the paper examines the research design, method, and theory that support the use of animated films in research. The review paper implies that animation films enhance vocabulary more effectively than traditional classroom settings.
Keywords: Animation movies, audio-visual learning, vocabulary learning, English language learning, English language classrooms

Muljaim Kacka, Bardha Kika, Elina Morina and Sevdije Marmullaku

This study aimed to investigate the speech sounds processes of children diagnosed with mental delays. Additionally, we explored all the sounds of the Albanian language, in level of articulation. We recruited 50 children, including 25 boys and 25 girls, with a mean age of 7.68 years. The results support the hypothesis that children diagnosed with mental delays are prone to speech sounds difficulties. Therefore, emphasizing the importance of possible risks in communication level is needed in order to address the needs of children with mental delays. Finally, this study is one of the first that investigated the phenomena of speech sounds difficulties in children with mental delays in Kosovar context.
Keywords: speech sounds difficulties, children with mental delays

After Africa, India has been a home for many indigenous communities who are still untouched by modern lifestyle. In particular indigenous adolescence is the one with the least exposure to the external world. There is a huge gap between how indigenous adolescence perceives them and howthey understand interpersonal relationship with the non-indigenous group. Even though Government takes many initiatives they still hesitate to come out their comfort-zone and lagging in interpersonal relationship with non-indigenous people. Results found that rationality indirectly mediates the relationship between self-identity and social intelligence. Adolescence’s who are taught to think rationally are better able to assess events using facts and evidence, which allows them to respond appropriately with a deeper comprehension of the circumstances through reasoning. So, rational thinking helps to reduce perceptual bias, conflict resolution between their group likewise improves scientific thinking and effective communication of indigenous students. Indigenous researchers should develop intervention programs to improve their rational thinking, which helps to enhance their social intelligence and most importantly they believe their own ability to make wise decisions.
Keywords: Indigenous, Mediation, Rational thinking, Self-identity, Social intelligence

This paper discusses the literature on language acquisition in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), highlighting rapid changes in the field. Researchers in psycholinguistics are exploring language acquisition theories due to ASD’s significant differences across language, social, and cognitive domains. The study highlights areas where knowledge is lacking and explores potential future directions. While pragmatic deficits are commonly associated with ASD, clinicians and researchers should consider phonological, morph syntactic differences and rehabilitation to change the condition of phonological errors, which impact language comprehension and production.
Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Behaviours, Language Acquisition, Language Impairment, Social cognition.

Thëllëza Latifi Sadrija, Alma Shehu Lokaj and Mersiha Kalac

This article aims to explain and empirically prove that human resource management processes and practices influence individual and organizational performance, significantly contributing to the advancement of education in an organizational context. The reliability test was used to measure the level of internal consistency of the construct; Correlation analysis and OLS regression models were used to test the hypothesis. Questionnaires were distributed to 607 employees from 41 companies.The analysis shows that individual and organizational performance grew proportionally to the human resources selection process. There was a strong correlation between individual performance and education/training; a weak correlation between employee compensation and organizational performance; and a moderate correlation between individual performance and career development. Variables such as workforce competencies, motivation, and effective work structures had a strong effect on organizational performance. Based on the findings, we strongly recommend and encourage all companies in this study and beyond to develop a strategic plan to successfully guide their employees and implement processes and practices that improve individual and organizational performance, thus enhancing education in the business context. In the Balkan countries, especially in Kosovo, there is a lack of research on human resource management practices and processes. Therefore, this study will assist organizations in their efforts to improve HRM processes and practices, contributing to a better understanding and implementation of education strategies in organizational settings in this region.
Keywords: HRM processes and practices, individual performance, organizational performance, education, future

Maja Podanin, Aldijana Avdic, Melika Muratovic, Dzanan Osmanovic, Darja Perkunic, Samra Mesic Paprikic and Amela Hercegovac

The aim of this study was to determine the frequencies of alleles and genotypes of the single nucleotide polymorphism of the FTO gene (rs17817449) and the intensity of physical activity in relation to the BMI of subjects in the student population. Genotyping was performed using the PCR-RFLP method. 94 subjects stated that they were not physically active, 57 subjects were moderately physically active and 52 were intensely physically active. In the total sample, the risk allele G of the investigated poly-morphism rs17817449 of the FTO gene had a lower frequency (41.8%) compared to the normal allele T (58.13%). Although a higher frequency of the risk allele G was found in the group of overweight subjects compared to the group with BMI < 25, the difference was not statistically significant (p >0.05).
Keywords: BMI, FTO gene, physical activity;

Albi Anggito, Edi Purwanta and Bambang Saptono

The implementation of learning activities based on cooperative activities and mutual interaction is quite limited during the COVID-19 pandemic so that students’ concern is not well honed. The purpose of this study is to survey the condition of the social care character of elementary school students in Indonesia. The method used in this research is a survey by distributing questionnaires to elementary school students. The scale used in this study is the Guttman scale. The results showed that the social care character of elementary school students is still low and needs to be reinforced after the pandemic through cooperative learning-based activities and other social activities. Most students still often experience bullying by their friends. Therefore, there needs to be efforts from various parties to reinvigorate the social caring character of elementary school students.
Keywords: Elementary School, Investigation, Social Care

The position of teachers in modern teaching and changes related to educational reforms require a high degree of professionalism from teachers themselves, which, as Marentic Pozarnik (2000, p. 4) points out, is essentially “the ability of detailed professional judgment appropriate to the situation (reflection) as well as methods and procedures”. It is important for “trained” teachers to know, in a special, responsible way, to learn from their practice. At the same time, experiential and reflective approaches to learning imply a changed role of teachers, and only in the second step the application of specific methods and techniques are suitable for encouraging experiential learning (Vizek Vidovic & Vlahovic Stetic, 2007, p. 303). In the concept of “critical professional”, the teacher in the educational and wider social field implies an awareness of the responsibilities of his profession at an individual level and society as a whole. A critical professional is able to think critically, both about his practical work and about the context of his work. He has developed an implicit understanding of the practical situation and the wider context. Professionals – experts at a higher level of professional activity are able to monitor and reflect, reconstruct and articulate knowledge gained from experience (Valencic Zuljan, 2001, p. 136). The very concept of reflection comes from the Latin reflectere that means reflection, contemplation, judgment. It is a process of experiential learning based on in-depth analysis of one’s own practice and cognition, in other words connecting and directing the thinking and actions of an individual (metacognitive process) (Bell et al., 1993, as cited in Skok, 2002, p. 14).
Keywords: valuation, measurement, grading, assessment, evaluation, monitoring

Trafficking in human beings is a phenomenon of global proportions, which on the one hand violates basic human rights and on the other hand represents a modern form of slavery. This phenomenon is influenced by various factors that are directly related to the level of development of the state, such as the economic situation, poverty, difficult housing conditions, low level of education, socio-cultural factors, etc. Trafficking in human beings in Kosovo concerning the number of inhabitants is considered to be high, despite the measures taken by the justice institutions. In this paper, the main focus is based on the analysis of the contribution of justice institutions concerning the criminal offense of trafficking in human beings in Kosovo and the comparability of cases of trafficking during the years 2017-2022. Furthermore, the conclusions of this research emphasize the necessary measures and policies that should be undertaken by the institutions of justice for the prevention and combating of this negative phenomenon at the country level. It also includes the importance of international legal cooperation, public awareness, and protection of victims through institutional channels. Only through inter-institutional cooperation and the raising of social awareness success can be achieved in the combat against this phenomenon, namely to protect basic human rights and freedoms.
Keywords: International legal cooperation, justice institutions, Trafficking in Human Beings

Resilience is the ability of an individual to successfully adapt to stressful and challenging situations. However, resilience encompasses not only the way we react to a specific stressful situation but also how we cope with accompanying physical, psychological, and social challenges. A resilient person is not immune to failures, losses, and the effects of stress. It is the way a person responds after the initial shock that stands out and distinguishes resilient individuals from others. The aim of this study is to examine differences in resilience and quality of life among early and middle-aged participants, as well as the relationship between these variables. We aim to determine the importance of self-efficacy, perseverance, social support, internal locus of control, and coping and adaptation strategies for preserving the physical and mental health of individuals under the impact of stressful life events.
Keywords: resilience, child abuse in the family, child protection from abuse

This study aims to identify why and under what circumstances employees prefer to remain silent. The qualitative method was used to understand the reasons for the employees’ silence, for which in-depth interviews were conducted. In this paper, 20 employees of the private sector in Kosovo were interviewed. Of the employees who were interviewed, seven of them are from the production sector, five from the service sector, three from the private education sector, and five from the trade sector. The interview data determined codes and categories, which were analyzed using the content analysis method. The data provided by the interview participants were analyzed through the MAXQDA 2020 qualitative data analysis program. Three categories with 21 codes mentioned in 263 cases were identified during data processing. The results show that the employees’ fear of the managers and the management’s approach is among the main reasons for the employees’ silence. In addition, other reasons impacting employees’ silence have been identified and presented in this paper.
Keywords: the silence of employees, fear of managers, management approach

This study examined the experiences of Palestinian parents (n=105) and teachers (n=99) for students with disabilities by the shift to distance Learning during Covid 19, in focusing on communication, student progress, support services, and stress levels. Participants answered a Likert scale questionnaire and three open questions. Findings revealed no significant differences between parents and teachers related to the examine parameters but it is indicated the gender as a significant factor in stress levels. Males, whether parents or teachers, reported less stress. Mothers expressed the least satisfaction with support services, contrasting with female teachers. This highlights possible disparities for mothers in accessing vital support during remote learning. Distance learning introduces distinct challenges, with both teachers and parents highlighting the need for proficiency in online platforms. Emphasizing tech-savviness is crucial in today’s educational setting. Both groups stressed the importance of emotional support, extending this need to everyone involved. The conclusion underscores the importance of joint solutions tailored to the specific requirements of students, parents, and teachers.
Keywords: Distance Learning, Students with Disabilities, COVID-19 pandemic, parents, teachers

Brunilda Zenelaga, Vehbi Miftari and Alma Shehu- Lokaj

The technology era has caused many changes in the reading habits of students, starting in 2011. However, the universities were not prepared for the enormous challenges they faced with the Pandemic, in late 2019 and early 2020. The pandemic has accelerated the habits of students toward digital resources and the use of more and more electronic materials. Facing this phenomenon, accelerated by the effects of Covid-19, the universities have to face the necessity of the adaptation of teaching methods which meant the use of digital materials. The article analyses the change in reading habits and the teaching methods in the Albanian and Kosovan context, showing how the universities in the Republic of Albania and Kosovo have been affected by these changes, embracing approaches to information technology. For this purpose, we have analyzed the changes in reading habits in different public and private universities in Albania and Kosovo. A tested questionnaire has been spread to 672 students in both countries, in different programs and different years of studies. The article shows that under the influence of globalization processes and the development of information technology, reading habits are changing at a frenetic speed, weakening hard copy reading and increasing electronic and that under the Pandemic Covid-19 universities changed the ways of offering teaching methods, accelerating the change of the reading habits of students and weakening the use of printed books as a tool for learning, as well as decreasing the time of reading for pleasure. A more dynamic world caused more focused universities and more rapid changes in the reading habits of the students.
Keywords: Education, new trends, reading habits, universities.

Adolescents are the most vulnerable group, who are denied to access information and guidance related to sexual and reproductive health needs because of the social taboos that lead them to encumbrances. This review study helps to understand the different perspectives of sexual and reproductive health based on cultural, sociological, physiological, and economical aspects. The paper explains sexuality from the theoretical perspectives. Adolescence is the transitional stage where physiological, biological, and psychological changes occur, at the same time proper knowledge about sexual and reproductive health should be provided with importance of sexual and reproductive health interventions. It intricates the availability and effectiveness of adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). The methodology is a systematic review with PRISMA guidelines sourced from various databases of PubMed databases, Research Gate, Science Direct, BMC Public Health, Web of Science, SAGE, Scopus, WHO library, and other websites relevant to this study. The recent literature highlighted the importance of sexual and reproductive health interventions among adolescents. The study has concluded with the findings impact of Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health (ASRH) intervention programmes and to develop an increase in effective ASRH programmes, which will help the adolescents to know the importance of sexual hygiene and reproductive hygiene.
Keywords: Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health; HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus); AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome); STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases); Contraceptives; Adolescent Sex Intervention Programme.

Inclusive education is very important for all children especially for those with special needs. In the Republic of Kosovo, the inclusion it is an approach in progress. This study aimed to explore the attitudes of parents of children with special needs towards inclusive education. The current findings of inclusiveness, challenges, risks, benefits and achievements of inclusive education in the Kosovo education system were also analysed. Through a semi-structured interview, ten parents whose children attend regular classes in various schools in pre-university education in Kosovo were interviewed. The results of the research indicate that parents of children with special needs have similar attitudes towards inclusion. In their opinion, it should occur, but they are worried about the challenges that appear. Inclusion is seen as a good opportunity, capacity building, equality, socialization and part of the overall development of the child. Parents recommend improvements in infrastructure conditions and human resources for successful inclusion.
Keywords: education, inclusion, parents, children, attitudes.

The goal of this research is to determine the attitudes and opinions of sports coaches about the presence and interference of politics in sports. The descriptive research method was selected for the problem selected from the quantitative approach. Through 11 questions of the survey, which was built specifically for this research, interesting and expected results were achieved. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 questions related to socio-status characteristics and 11 questions related to determining the attitudes of sports coaches about the presence and interference of politics in sports. The questionnaire is closed type. Statistical processing of data was done with the program SPSS statistics 25 for the Windows. For the purposes of the research, data was collected and processed on a sample of 125 respondents, male, aged 24 to 62, sports coaches from18 different sports, who perform their duties in 52 different sports clubs in Prizren. Based on the results of this research, it can be concluded that politics is present and interferes in sports. It is inevitable to say that the future of sports and athletes depends and will depend on political will.
Keywords: Sport, sports coaches, sports clubs, politics, politicians.

Bullying is an intimidating behavior that can be internalized as a learned behavior. The Study aimed to create thoughtfulness among employees about how and what makes an individual become a bully or engage in bullying with no awareness. The Study explored the view of an employee to understand how unconscious behavior can influence one’s actions and behavior toward bullying. This Study practiced a Focus Group Discussion and conducted the discussion virtually on a sample of 31 employees of the Service and Non-Service sectors. The researcher discussed with 11 participants in one group and 20 in another on two different days. This discussion helped to provide awareness about unconsciousness in bullying behavior at the workplace. This discussion helped to gather views of working people from various sectors. It illustrated that focus groups could enhance awareness and empower one’s thoughts and beliefs. An important finding can be that the group identified the challenges of Unconscious bullying, like lack of self-awareness, marginal ethical and moral guidance, and eminence. In conclusion, it is observed from the discussion and responses from employees that there is a need to have healthy communication abilities in stating their feelings assertively.
Keywords: Bullying, Harassment, Unconscious, Assertive, intimidating, and threatening behavior.

DOi: 10.21554/hrr