The necessity of delinquent behavior correction programs is determined by the prevention of wrongdoing and by the correction of behavior if a crime has been committed. The article aims to generalize the conceptual basis and principles of delinquent behavior correction program creation for youth detention center pupils. To achieve the set aims of the research, methods of scientific literature analysis method, interviewing, and mathematical statistics methods were used. Empiric research results on the effectiveness of various delinquent behavior correction program effectiveness, principles for the creation of effective programs, indicators, which can be used to evaluate the disposition of youth for delinquent behavior, and motives behind crimes were analyzed. Aggression level indicators and delinquent behavior disposition amongst pupils of the Kremenchuk youth detention center. Based on acquired data, a scheme of delinquent behavior correction program creation for pupils of various aggression and delinquent behavior disposition levels was developed.
Keywords: aggression; behavior; resocialization; youth; wrongdoing

The problem of the unsettled land registry state of real estate generated the appearance of new problems, as such but also of some other nature, whereby some of them, and due to the sensitivity of the question, covered by their reach, at the level of the most complex issues in the legal system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Under the spotlight of such problems, the paper points to possible directions reforms in the field of public real estate records and real estate rights. In order to choose the appropriate recording model, the most significant reform solutions are also presented in the paper, contained in the provisions of the new entity laws on land registers, i.e. of the law on real rights. With the same goal, the paper points out the importance of following rich legal traditions in the matter of establishing rights to real estate. In this respect, special attention is dedicated to the re-updated system of unique real estate records, as a kind of expression of completely different aspirations in this area.
Keywords: The problem of non-functionality of land registers, land register model of real estate registration, the system of unique real estate records, registration and its effects, legal rules on trust protection.

Terrorism is not a new concept, but it gained prominence when many extreme occurrences occurred, prompting a more in-depth investigation of the subject. Following the Pan Am flight bombing, for example, terrorism horrified the United States government and the entire world’s population. This research aims to investigate, using secondary data, how social media was used in Kosovo to spread propaganda for radical terrorism and to analyse the provisions of the Kosovo Criminal Code that were broken by this propaganda. The current study relies on desk research with secondary data analysis, namely the content analysis of reports, articles, and news, and interpretive analysis of the Criminal Code of Kosovo. According to the study, propaganda for the spread of extremism and radicalism was used in Kosovo by showing videos on Facebook and YouTube channels, typically with religious messages about the duty to God for helping brothers and sisters in Syria and, to a lesser extent, by showing videos of Kosovo terrorists directly committing terrorist acts in Syria. In addition, the analysis discovers that propaganda led to violations of paragraphs a, b, and c of Article 139 of the Kosovo Criminal Code.
Keywords: Jihad, Kosovo, propaganda, social media, violent extremism

Over the past decade, many studies have been conducted on the ethical aspects of gender equality in international business negotiations. Research shows that, despite women’s success in solving global negotiation challenges, their participation is still limited. And while this influence may not be direct, it should be noted that women are generally considered less good negotiators than their male counterparts. In this sense, through analyzing theoretical discourse, this article examines the contemporary practice of business negotiation. The goal is to point out the (un)ethical continuity of the gender division of labor, whereby gender should not prejudge the individual, but rather his negotiation abilities. As the existing scientific literature requires further multidisciplinary research, we believe this article will contribute to a better understanding of the importance of ethical harmony of gender equality as the best strategy and practice for negotiating parties in international business negotiations.
Keywords: business, gender expression, gender inequalities, international negotiation, power and gender, unethical preference

Esad H. Mahmutovic, Husnija Hasanbegovic, Marinko Tomic

The aim of this work was to investigate the qualitative characteristics of hearing aid users (satisfaction with the use of hearing aids in everyday life) and to determine if there are any differences compared to published research in the literature. The sample of respondents consisted of 50 users of hearing aids, aged from 20 to 88 years. The sample was chosen by random selection from a previously selected sample of 398 hearing aid users. A special questionnaire was constructed for the research. The first part of the questionnaire consisted of variables: gender, age, type of hearing impairment, percentage of hearing loss, degree of hearing impairment, time of hearing aid use, and brand of hearing aid. The second part consisted of variables for the assessment of satisfaction with the use of hearing aids, that is, 15 statements to which respondents had to express their views on satisfaction with the use of hearing aids. This part of the questionnaire was carried out by surveying. The results showed that the majority of hearing aid users wear the hearing aid regularly, they benefit significantly from the hearing aid and it helps them in communication. They have no significant problems when using and handling the hearing aid. The variables gender, age, and time of hearing aid use had no statistically significant correlations with the applied set of variables (claims). Attitudes of hearing aid users can be an important factor in determining benefit and satisfaction with hearing aids.
Keywords: hearing aid, hearing aid users, usefulness and satisfaction with hearing aid

This research paper examines the relationship between communication and child rights. Effective communication is crucial for ensuring that children’s rights are protected and promoted. Through communication, children are able to express their views and needs, which is key to realizing their right to freedom of expression and participation. Communication also plays a critical role in protecting children from abuse and neglect. When children are able to communicate with trusted individuals, they can report any illegal actions and protect themselves from further harm. In education, communication is essential for realizing children’s right to education. When children have the opportunity to communicate with their teachers and other school community members, they can learn in a better environment and actively engage in the learning process. The paper is realized in accordance with the communication which is essential for realizing children’s rights in various areas and it is important to provide children with opportunities to communicate and express themselves.
Keywords: Communication, Child Rights, Effective Communication, Child Development, Protection, Freedom of Expression, Education.

This study analyses financial education and its impact on the behavior of young people in Kosovo during their financial planning. It also provides a theoretical overview of financial education, financial planning, and financial experiences. The study was conducted using quantitative methods, with primary data collected through an online questionnaire. The statistical tests used are MANOVA, ANOVA, Paired T-Test, the Chi-square test for goodness- of-fit, and factorial and reliability analysis. We find that the level of education has a positive effect on money management and the creation of a personal financial plan; employment status and sources of income have an essential impact on controlling the financial situation; financial experience has a positive effect on making personal financial decisions. All empirical analyses are original and based on the authors’ calculations through econometric models and other research methods. We highlight the importance of financial education in schools.
Keywords: financial education, financial planning, financial behavior, consumer behavior, youth

The paper focuses on highlighting the weaknesses and lack of legislation for the electronic notarization of electronic contracts, not only in Kosovo’s business field. The idea of electronic notarization is new in Kosovo and is considered a complex task for the regulation of contractual obligations, which condition the modern activities of e-business. The dynamics and dimensions of e-business development strongly influence the change in the techniques of concluding formal contracts at a distance through information technologies. New legislative practices in the modern world are successfully managing to eliminate or reduce these obstacles, which unintentionally complicate and slow down contractual legal relations between business partners. Notary services are no exception to this trend. Despite the positive trend, the legislation in Kosovo seems to be only in its beginnings, and as such it does not enable and guarantee business partners the electronic notarization of contracts, but unfortunately, there is no debate and no concrete initiatives so far. The first phase, which would better regulate this field, concerns the standardization through the validation of these contracts in the territory of Kosovo through criteria that prove and guarantee the accuracy of the contract.
Keywords: e-business, electronic contract, electronic notarization, law, validation

Lidija Ristovska, Zora Jachova, Jasmina Kovacevic, Husnija Hasanbegovic

The aim of the study was to compare pre-treatment and post-treatment pure tone thresholds and tympanometric findings in preschool children with adenoid hypertrophy and hearing loss. This retrospective study included 63 children, 40 males (63.5%) and 23 females (36.5%), aged 4 to 6 years (mean age of 5.5±0.6 years). A total of 21 children (33.3%) had tympanostomy tube placement in addition to adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy. All children had mild conductive hearing loss. Pure tone average (PTA) was lower after adenoidectomy and adenotonsillectomy (p<0.0001). Type B tympanogram was predominant before treatment (62.7%), and type A tympanogram after treatment (81%). Preoperative mean PTA in children with adenoidectomy was 28 dB HL and in children with adenotonsillectomy was 27 dB HL. In both subgroups postoperative mean PTA was 16 dB HL. In children with adenoid hypertrophy and conductive hearing loss, hearing thresholds after adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy are significantly lower than preoperative hearing thresholds.
Keywords: adenoidectomy, adenotonsillectomy, children, hearing loss

Almedina Ramas, Sabrina Uscuplic, Merima Kasumovic, Almir Salkic, Sekib Umihanic, Hasan Altumbabic

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze all the factors (disease symptoms, sinthigraphic findings, biochemical parameters) that occur in patients with hyperparathyroidism, and since hyperparathyroidism itself is a common endocrine disorder. Methods: We analyzed 79 patients with primary, secondary, and tertiary hyperparathyroidism, who underwent surgery. We analyzed mean of age, male: female ratio, representation of different forms of hyperparathyroidism. In our study, we examined the indications for examination and surgery, as well as the most common symptoms and comorbidities. For localization PTG, scintigraphy was performed by a nuclear medicine specialist (at the Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine) preoperatively. Preoperative values of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were determined in all patients, and the same values were measured postoperatively. We also analyzed correlation of dialysis length and parathyroid gland hyperplasia in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Results: In our study mean of years was 51.13 ± 11.83 and most of the respondents were female. The most common operation was subtotal parathyroidectomy. The most common indication for examination of parathyroid glands (PTG) was renal failure. The most common comorbidity was arterial hypertension, which was found in 43 (53.2%) subjects, and the rarest gastrointestinal diseases and pancreatitis, in 1 (1.3%) patients. Scintigraphy showed an equal representation of enlarged lower parathyroid glands (both right and left). The mean values determined preoperatively for PTH were 796.24 pg/ml, Ca 2.58 mmol / l and P 1.35 mmol / l. The mean postoperative values for PTH were 222.33 pg/ml, Ca 2.06 mmol/l and P 1.17 mmol/l. We also showed that was a large correlation between dialysis length and hyperplasia. Conclusion: Hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disease, carrying potential complications of many organic systems. In most cases, regardless of the form (primary, secondary, or tertiary), it ultimately requires surgical treatment. For this reason, the clinical picture must be well known, the necessary preoperative diagnostic methods (which are complex), all with the aim of better effect of treatment of such patients.
Keywords: hyperparathyroidism; calcium, parathyroid hormone, scintigraphy

Learning English is a must nowadays, especially for students pursuing higher education and aspiring for a presence on the international stage. There are many methods of teaching English as a foreign language. This case study focuses on the use of audiovisual material in particular movies and photographs as a method to master English language communication skills. In the current world, students must develop appreciable English language comprehension and communication skills to peruse international literature and find ways to express their opinions at the academic level. This study is conducted with the first year bachelor students of three different faculties at the University of Prizren using quantitative and qualitative methods. A carefully designed online questionnaire, as well as interviews, are the main research methods. Findings prove that using videos and photos as teaching materials during English communication classes sparked students’ interest to engage in discussion and as the matter of fact they have improved their overall English skills, especially improved their confidence in expressing their ideas in English.
Keywords: movies in TESL, communication skills, university students, student engagement, visual materials

Being outdoors allows children to explore, experience natural phenomena, it gives them more space and freedom for development. Educators should arouse children’s interest in nature so that children develop feelings and learn from experience. The research aimed at determining the attitudes and reflections of educators employed in preschool institutions in the Republic of Croatia regarding the attitudes and reflections of educators about being outdoors. The research was conducted on a sample of 351 educators. A measuring instrument designed for the needs of this research was used. The results of the research show that 53% of educators agree or completely agree with the statement that they spend their free time in nature. Furthermore, 35.6% spend up to 6 hours a week walking, recreation, cycling and the like. Regarding the statement which limiting factors prevent going outdoors with children, 58.1% of educators completely agree or agree with the statement. We asked the respondents which other limiting factor they see as an obstacle and 36.9% mentioned the weather. Educators are the ones who decide whether children will spend time outdoors. This affects children’s different experiences because their time outdoors depends on the beliefs and attitudes of their educators.
Keywords: educator, preschool child, spending time outdoors.

Psychological Wellbeing in students has recently have lot of attention, especially after the pandemic outburst. Positive psychological intervention was proved as helpful in promoting psychological wellbeing and it is also connected with the story reading intervention; stories which support positive indicators. This study showed the effect of story reading intervention on positive indicators of psychological wellbeing over time for a group of literature undergraduates (n=60). This included 8 stories provided to the intervention group only for comparison with control group. The result showed that story reading led to improvement in students’ positive constructs over a period of eight weeks. The obtained results are discussed in the context of their implications for story reading intervention in higher educational institutions.
Keywords: Psychological Wellbeing, Story Reading Intervention, hedonic happiness (enjoyment, pleasure), Eudaimonic (meaning, fulfillment) happiness, Resilience (coping, emotion regulation), and Academic Satisfaction (Self-efficacy and Achievements)

The aim of this study is to reveal the role of internal organizational communication in motivating employees in public service organizations. Data were collected from 249 surveyed employees, in the mobile telecommunications sector in Kosovo, specifically in the Vala mobile company. The collected data was analyzed by using the SPSS system. The study found that information sharing had the greatest effect on employee motivation, followed by employee involvement in decision-making. This paper can be useful for managers and heads to create an organizational culture that promotes both motivation and performance. This paper is unique as it examines the links between organizational communication, motivation, and performance.
Keywords: Communication, organization, organizational communication, organizational culture, motivation, performance

Contemporary states take a variety of measures, ranging from economic, social, cultural, and health to legal ones, to ensure the protection of the individual and the family. Social protection is substantially a form or a field of fulfilment of human needs. Economic assistance, social services and social care are considered social programs which aim to alleviate poverty, eliminate social exclusion, provide social care, enable the reintegration of all individuals, families and groups in need. The Republic of Kosovo, through positive law, has undertaken a series of economic and social measures which ensure the protection of the individual and the family. Social protection in the Republic of Kosovo is not defined by a special law, but it is defined by a package of laws. Thus, currently, in Kosovo there is necessary legal infrastructure for social protection beneficiaries, although not complete in the desired form and quality.
Keywords: social protection, situation of social need, social insurance, democratic transition.

The psychosomatic condition affects the hippocampus, temporal role, and parietal lobes of the brain. People with Psychosomatic condition displays poor language skills, higher level of cognitive dysfunction, Memory disorders, Anxiety level, Depression, and stress level. Cognitive language therapy aids learners towards the improvement of anxiety, depression, and stress levels. The sampling method employed in the study is the purposive sampling method. DASS 21 was used to analyze the stress, anxiety, and depression levels before and after the intervention. Cognitive language therapy activities like chunking, embroidery, and identifying errors were given to the learners to reduce the impact of stress, anxiety, and depression among individuals with the psychosomatic condition. The paired t-test in SPSS was performed and from the study findings, it is concluded that the participants displayed a low to medium range of depression after the intervention of cognitive language therapy. Through paired samples test, the significance value for all three pairs (Depression, anxiety, and stress) is 0.000, which is lesser than 0.05. Hence, there is a considerable improvement in depression, anxiety, and stress levels among the participants with the psychosomatic condition as a result of cognitive language therapy intervention.
Keywords: Anxiety, Stress, Depression, cognitive therapy, Psychosomatic condition

Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive and persistent anxiety or fear and are associated with a range of behavioral disturbances. Most parents experience anxiety from time to time, parenting anxiety can affect the quality of their life or their child’s life. The regulation of emotions and behavior is crucial to the healthy early development of children, where they interact with the environment to adjust emotions, cope with frustrations and stress. Parents who are depressed and out of tune with their child’s needs and emotions leave the child unsupported, left to manage their own anger, sadness, and fear, and are left to their own immature repertoire of behaviors. To make a comparative analysis of the impact of anxiety on the mental health of children of anxious and non-anxious parents.A cross-sectional transfer analytic study was conducted. 300 students were analyzed, in the territory of Gostivar, as well as their parents. “Psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders” (SCARED) – child version was used to examine anxiety in children, and it measures it in 4 domains (panic, separation anxiety, generalized anxiety and school phobia).A statistically significant difference was confirmed in the distribution of students without anxiety, with possible anxiety disorder, and with anxiety disorder, between parents with and without anxiety (p<0.0001). Anxious parents more often than parents who did not manifest anxiety have children with a possible anxiety disorder and with a convincing result for anxiety disorderconsequently. Anxious parents significantly more often than parents without anxiety had children with panic disorder.Regardless of children’s specific symptoms, anxiety can have a negative effect on their thoughts, emotions, and physical health.Anxiety runs in families, with recent analysis showing that children of anxious parents are twice as likely to have anxiety problems than children of non- anxious parents. The results of the research showed a significant impact of parents’ anxiety on children’s health.
Keywords: anxiety, parents, children, puberty, influence

In recent years, digital games have evolved into a worldwide form of entertainment that captivates individuals of all ages. This game addiction has made people less active and less social, which could be harmful to both their mental and physical health. Paradoxically, the very innovation that involves addiction has also emerged as a powerful tool for cognitive repair and recovery. In this research, qualitative methods were used. The qualitative study results came from a wide range of secondary sources, such as medical research articles, academic psychology journal articles, medical blogs, and previous theses. This study looks into the reasons for game addiction as well as the role of digital games in cognitive repair and addiction recovery. The study’s findings indicate that gaming addiction has a damaging effect on people’s mental and physical health. Integrating digital games as a supporting tool for cognitive repair during addiction recovery will be a promising approach to produce effective results.
Keywords: addiction; recovery; mental health; digital games; cognitive repair

DOi: 10.21554/hrr